This is a glossary of terms you might see around the ACBDD website. Use Command+F (Mac) or Control+F (PC) on your keyboard to search for a specific term, or use the navigation below.

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A cost projection tool used in Ohio to develop service plans for people who live together.


A type of subsidy from the State of Ohio, paid to a County Board of Developmental Disabilities, in order to serve people within the community.


Aged, Blind and Disabled population.


Adult Basic Literacy Education

Abuser Registry

The Abuser Registry lists individuals who have committed abuse, neglect, misappropriation of funds, a failure to report an incident, or who have engaged in improper sexual relations with an individual who has a developmental disability.

Active Treatment

A holistic plan designed by a team of specialists to teach a person to live more independently


The Americans with Disabilities Act, enacted in 1990, prohibits discrimination against persons because of their disabilities. The ADA serves as a "comprehensive national mandate for the elimination of discrimination against individuals with disabilities." (42 U.S.C. 12101(b)(1)) The ADA targets three major areas: Title I addresses discrimination by employers; Title II addresses discrimination by governmental entities; and Title III addresses discrimination in public accommodations operated by private entities..


Average Daily Membership: Used in calculating costs in Medicaid-funded programs.


Activities in support of people with mental retardation and developmental disabilities including rights protection, legal and services assistance, and system or policy changes.


Advocacy and Protective Services Inc. is an agency that provides guardianship services to people with developmental disabilities.


A formal or informal evaluation of an individual's needs for supports and specialized services. Evaluation findings form the basis for determining an individual's level of care (LOC), and for writing a person's Individual Service Plan (ISP).

Assistive Technology

Assistive Technology (AT) can be a device that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a person with a disability or a service that directly assists a person with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device. Examples of AT include augmentative communication devices which assist a person who cannot communicate through speech to communicate with others, and adaptive equipment which assists a person to write (such as an adapted pencil or arm brace), or move objects in the person's environment (such as a switch or remote control device).

At risk

Example: When a disease has not yet happened to a person, but because of conditions, it is likely to occur, that person is considered to be 'at risk' for the condition


A case management tool that is in development with ODJFS that will be used to identify services for people receiving Medicaid services.


A developmental disorder that may be characterized by impaired social interaction, difficulties in communicating, repetitive or habitual behavior, and other issues.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

A group of diagnoses that describe characteristics consistent with autism.


Bureau of Community Health Plans -- a section of ODJFS that deals with services in the community.


Bureau of Criminal Identification and Investigation. This agency provides a criminal record check used to determine the eligibility of a person to be certified by DODD as a Medicaid service provider.

Behavior Support Plan (BSP)

Defines how services and supports are used to address behavior issues for a person.


Bureau of Services for the Visually Impaired

Buy-In Options

This is federal Medicaid reform enacted by Congress that allows states to modify Medicaid elgibility rules that permit people with disabilities returning to work to secure extended Medicaid coverage, but also requires them to contribute toward such coverage, according to rules established by the State. See MBI-WD.


Bureau of Vocational Rehabilitation. A state agency which may provide funding for services, equipment, and supports that prepare an individual with disabilities for employment.

Card Services

The Medicaid services that are available to people with and without a waiver.


Council on Accreditation of Rehabilitiation Facilities performs a review regarding the quality of care in residential facilities. Successful surveys result in CARF Accreditation.

Case Manager

A case manager is another term for a Service and Support Administrator (SSA -- see below).


County Board of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities. The powers and duties of this political subdivision are defined in ORC 5126.05 -- NOTE This acronym and term will change effective October 2009, and will become County Board of Developmental Disabilities per SB79.


County Collaborative Group -- Investigates early childhood issues.


County Department of Job and Family Services

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral Palsy is a functional disorder caused by damage to the brain during pregnancy, delivery, or shortly after birth. It is characterized by movement disorders, such as: spasticity (tight limb muscles), purposeless movements, rigidity (severe form of spacticity), a lack of balance, or a combination of these disorders. Individuals with cerebral palsy may or may not also experience seizures, abnormal, speech, hearing, and visual impairments, and/or mental retardation.


Code of Federal Regulations.


Also referred to as S-CHIP, CHIP stands for Children's Health Insurance Program. Also may be referred to as Healthy Start.


Children's Health Insurance Program/State Children's Health Insurance Program (also known as Healthy Start)


Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services is the federal agency that administers Medicare and Medicaid, and regulates the certification of agencies and care facilities for people with developmental disabilities, including mental retardation.


Children's Ohio Eligibility Determination Instrument (and Ohio Eligibility Instrument, OEDI), are tests to determine the eligibility of persons for state and county developmental disabilities services.


Councils of Government.


A person who has been or is receiving developmental disabilities services or supports. Instead of 'consumer', preferred terms are 'participant in services' or an 'individual'.

Control Number

Number assigned by DODD to each waiver recipient for internal tracking purposes.

County Board of Developmental Disabilities (CBDD)

County Board of Developmental Disabilities. The powers and duties of this political subdivision are defined in ORC 5126.05 -- NOTE: This acronym and term changes effective October 2009, from the previous term, County Board of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, per SB79.

County Board-eligible

Refers to a person who meets the eligibility requirements that permit a County Board of Developmental Disabilities to deliver services.

County Dispute Resolution

An opportunity to dispute an action related to Medicaid or non-Medicaid services with a County Board of Developmental Disabilities, before a state hearing.


Cost Projection Tool.


Client Registry Information Systems-Enhanced. Database maintained by Ohio Dept. of Job and Family Services (ODJFS).


Calendar Year: From January 1 to December 31 of any year.


Daily Billing Unit

Developmental Center

An Intermediate Care Facility for the Mentally Retarded (Medicaid terminology) under the managing responsibility of the Department of Developmental Disabilities.

Developmental Delays

Developmental Delays refer to conditions that represent a significant delay in the process of child development. The delays may involve cognitive, physical, communicative, social/emotional, and adaptive areas of development. Without special intervention, these delays may affect the educational performance of the child.

Developmental Disabilities

Conditions that may impair physical or intellectual/cognitive functions or behavior, and occur before a person is age 22.


A mental or physical condition that is restricting or limiting, or interferes with various activities.

Disability Waiver

A waiver issued by the Ohio Dept. of Job and Family Services (ODJFS) so that people under age 60 can receive services in their home instead of going to live in a nursing home or hospital.


Outdated as of October 2009: Shortened name for ODMRDD, referring to it as Department of Mental Retardation.


Date of Birth


The Ohio Department of Developmental Disabilities -- acronym used after October 5, 2009, following passage of Senate Bill 79,removing the words "Mental Retardation and" from the state agency's name. (Replaces ODMRDD acronym)


Daily Rate Application: A program used in calculating Daily Billing Units.


Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: A Medical reference book that lists and describes many developmental disabilities.


Decision Support System.


Electronic Data Interchange.


Electronic Funds Transfer -- This is an electronic and/or direct deposit into your account.


Early Intervention. Services for children from birth through age 2.


The trade name for a software tool that offers interactive trainings or 'webinars' using the internet.


Executive Medicaid Management Agency


Means 'cause of a disease or condition'.


Evaluation Team Report

Family Support

Persons identified by the individual with disabilities as either family members or significant others who provide necessary support.

Family Supported Services

Locally-paid services, rather than waiver services.


Frequently-Asked Questions


Federal Financial Participation. The portion of waiver payments reimbursed to Ohio from the U. S. Dept. of Health and Human Services.


Federal Fiscal Year: From October 1 to September 30 of any year.

Form 2

DODD Monthly Roster of Services Form.


Fiscal Year. Time measurement used by state governmental agencies, which extends from July 1 of one year, to June 30 of the following calendar year.


Generic Adult Community Service


Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services'(CMS') consulting organization.


Allowing a person who was part of an old set of rules, to be allowed under a new set of rules as well. The person is said to be "grandfathered in".

Group Home

A home for persons with disabilities that generally has 16 or fewer residents.


Training in life skills, such as housekeeping, that have not been otherwise learned.

HCBS Waiver

A Home and Community Based Services Waiver allows a person to get services that are not normally covered under the state's Medicaid plan.


Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. The HIPAA Privacy Rule creates national standards to protect individuals' medical records and other Protected Health Information (PHI).

Home Choice

A program that allows for people leaving institutions to access some funding to help make the transition to the community.

Home Modifications

Home modifications are adaptations made to a home to allow for easier and safer access due to specific needs resulting from a disability.


International Statistical Classification of Diseases -- a code used in the medical field to identify ailments and conditions.

ICD-9 code

A coding system that tracks services provided to people.


Intermediate Care Facility for the Mentally Retarded: A Medicaid-funded residential facility that teaches living skills to help people live in less restrictive environments.


The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) is a federal law that guarantees all eligible children with disabilities between the ages of 3 and 21 (or until the child graduates) the right to a free and appropriate public education designed to meet their individual needs. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142) was an earlier version of the IDEIA.


Individual Data System: A client-centric data management system under development (status as of September 2009), that will be the single point of access to data collections about individuals the ODMRDD serves, and/or supports. The IDS will replace the IIF (see this Glossary) but go further to serve as a 'parent folder' for all systems applications. The IDS will house all data about an individual, and its user-friendly interface will allow users to modify multiple records without repeatedly using the client search function.


Individual Education Plan. It outlines the goals and objectives necessary to meet the educational needs of a person.

IHP or ISP or IP

Individual Habilitation Plan. Individual Service Plan. Individual Plan. These outline what type of training or other supports may be needed to help people gain the living skills they need.


Individual Information Form (See IDS, above)-- Completed annually by local County Boards of Developmental Disabilities, and submitted to DODD. The data collected includes information on average daily membership of County Boards, and services individuals are receiving.

Independent Living

Independent living involves the belief that individuals with disabilities have the same rights and responsibilities as other people in society. Thus, services provided to the public should be accessible to persons with disabilities, and systems of support should be made available to help individuals with disabilities live within the community, and lead more independent lives.

IO Waiver

The Individual Options Waiver is a home and community-based waiver to let people receive the services they need in their own homes.


Individual Service Plan. Developed to identify specific services and supports needed and desired by an individual. The ISP describes all services and supports necessary, regardless of payor source, for a particular individual to maintain health and safety, and avoid institutionalization. The ISP should explain how each support service is intended to meet a need, as indicated in the most recent assessment of the individual's functioning levels.


Intra-State Transfer Voucher.


Information Technology. Also, ITS: Information Technology Services.


Joint Application Development: A process of talking through a software application's design with the people who program it.


Joint Committee on Administrative Rule Review: The legislative committee that reviews and approves all departmental (non-emergency) rules before becoming effective.

Job Coach

In supported employment, the Job Coach provides one-on-one training to an individual on the job, until that individual is able to complete tasks to the employer's satisfaction. As the worker becomes proficient, the Job Coach begins spending less time training the worker. The Job Coach continues to monitor the worker occasionally, and is available when needed to assist with retraining and other support that the worker might need.

Level 1 Waiver

This waiver offers several different services with set spending limits. Some limits can be changed with prior approval from the local County Board of Developmental Disabilities.


Level of Care is a determination of the help needed to guarantee a person's health and safety.


Least Restrictive Environment. One of the principles of normalization. It requires that people with disabilities receive services and support in environments that do not limit their life activities unnecessarily. For example, children with disabilities should be educated in ways that meet their needs, and least limits their opportunities to be near and interact with other children.

Martin Settlement

A legal agreement that allows for a total of 1500 individuals with disabilities to receive Individual Options (IO) waiver services, enrolling during the years 2008 and 2009, and paid for through the funds appropriated under the Martin v. Strickland Settlement of 2006.


Medicaid Buy-In for Workers with Disabilities. (Also: MBI) A program to help people with disabilities who work maintain Medicaid coverage and not lose their benefits.


Medicaid Billing System.

Medicaid Card Services

The Medicaid services that are available to people with and without a waiver.

Medicaid Case Number

This is a ten-digit, permanent identification number assigned by ODJFS to an individual's file.

Medicaid Match

The federal government requires that the state/local government match federal government funds for Medicaid reimbursement services. In Ohio, this is about 60 percent federal and 40 percent state match.


Medicaid Eligibility Manual. Formerly known as the Public Assistance Manual (PAM).

Mental Retardation

Mental Retardation means significantly below-average general intellectual functioning (IQ 70-75 or below), existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior, and manifested during an individual's developmental period, which is before the age of 22. Mental retardation is a developmental disability.


Medicaid Eligibility Rate


Multi-Factored Evaluation: Used in schools to determine special education eligibility.


Mental Health.


Medicaid Infrastructure Grant.


Management Information System.


Mental Retardation/ Mental Health: An MR/MH diagnosis may also be termed a 'dual diagnosis', wherein an individual exhibits both mental retardation and mental health issues.


Major Unusual Incident: The reporting system mandated by Ohio law that sets procedures to review and report allegations of abuse, neglect and other potentially serious incidents that occur in the Developmental Disabilities system.


National Core Indicators: Nationally-recognized performance and outcome indicators that enable developmental disabilities policy makers to benchmark the performance of their state against the performance of other states. NCI also enables each participating state developmental disabilities agency to track system performance and outcomes from year to year on a consistent basis.


National Drug Code: The name given to the imprint codes on medications.


Nursing Facility. A residential facility that is established pursuant to section 1919 (a) - (d) of the Social Security Act, to provide Medicaid-funded services.


Notification of Individual Change in Status.


Ohio Administrative Code. The Administrative Code contains the full text of, or a reference to, every rule that has been adopted by the agencies of state government. A rule is a formal, written communication of the law that has been established by an agency under a statute that authorizes the agency to adopt rules.


Ohio Association of County Boards of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities: The name of the Ohio Association of County Boards of Developmental Disabilities prior to passage of Senate Bill 79, removing the words "Mental Retardation and".


Ohio Administrative Knowledge System: A PeopleSoft administrative software system used as a financial and human resources system across Ohio.


Office of Budget and Management.


Ohio Dept. of Alcohol and Drug Addiction Services.


Ohio Developmental Disabilities Profile is an assessment tool for individuals enrolled on the Individual Options (IO) Home and Community Based Waiver.


Ohio Department of Education.


Ohio Department of Health.


Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, the single Medicaid agency for Ohio.


Ohio Department of Mental Health.


Ohio Department of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities: The name of the Ohio Department of Developmental Disabilities before dropping the words 'Mental Retardation and' in October 2009, following passage of Senate Bill 79.


Ohio Eligibility Determination Instrument (diagnostic) for ages 16 and over. This refers to a test to determine the eligibility of persons for state and county Developmental Disabilities services.


Ohio Health Plans. An office in the Department of Job and Family Services.

Olmstead v. LC

A U.S. Supreme Court decision that found that people with disabilities have rights to services in the least restrictive environment.


Ohio Legal Rights Services provides rights protection and advocacy services to adults and children with disabilities.

Onset Age

The age of a person when a condition, such as a developmental disability, first is found to be present.


Ohio Olmstead Task Force: An organization that advocates for community-based services.


Ohio Provider Resource Assn.: An organization of providers of Developmental Disabilities services.


Ohio Revised Code. Contains the laws of the State of Ohio.


Ohio Self-Determination Assn.: An advocacy organization to help people with disabilities achieve greater independence and exercise choices in their lives.


Prior Authorization Request

Part C, Medicare

Part of Medicare that allows for private insurance to contract with the federal government to offer Medicare benefits through their own policies.

Part D, Medicare

Section of the Medicare program that covers the cost of prescription medications.


Pre-Admission Screening Resident Review. The system used to determine eligibility for nursing facility placement and/or specialized services.


Pre-Admission Screening System Providing Options and Resources Today. A waiver available to people over the age of 60 who meet certain requirements.

Patient Liability

The amount that the consumer owes, per month, toward his/her care. This amount is determined by the Ohio Dept. of Human Services on an individual basis, and is related to a consumer's income.


Payment Authorization for Waiver Services. The form that authorizes payment for HCBS (see above)Waiver services.


Person Centered Planning emphasizes the needs and choices of the individual when planning services.


Provider Certification System

People First

An advocacy organization that directly involves people with disabilities in a variety of local, state, and national issues, projects, and programs.


Protected Health Information: The type of personal information protected under HIPAA.


Preliminary Implementation Component Tool: A tool used by County Boards and the DODD to identify and allocate capacity on Home and Community-Based waivers administered by the Department.


Purchase of Services: NOTE -- POS was eliminated in 1997. It referred to a contractual arrangement between the (then)ODMRDD and a person, agency, or governmental entity to provide community-based residential services to individuals determined to be eligible to receive these services.


A documented and uniform process, which is followed to identify services, paid for by a waiver, which are necessary to meet the health and safety needs of individuals, and avoid their institutionalization.


A person or agency that delivers services to people with disabilities.

Provider Agreement

A contract between ODJFS and a provider of Medicaid services in which the provider agrees to comply with the terms of the provider agreement, ODJFS, state, and administrative code.

Provider Pool

A listing of DODD-certified waiver/supported living providers who have expressed an interest to a specific County Board of Developmental Disabilities, or responded to an RFP, to provide waiver/supported living services within the county. The provider pool is maintained by the County Board, and this listing is made available to persons receiving services and supports. These individuals may select a provider who is a member of the pool, or may select a certified provider who is not a member of the pool, but who is otherwise qualified to provide supports which the individual requires.


Quality Assurance. A structured method of measuring and documenting quality of services.


Request for Additional Information: A term used by CMS to stop a waiver amendment's 90-day review period before approving amendments to HCBS waivers or Ohio's State Plan. Once an RAI is issued, Ohio must answer the questions CMS has raised, and then a new 90-day review period can begin.


Redetermination. A process of reassessment of an individual's continued eligibility for waiver services. Redetermination activities begin for each individual enrolled on a waiver at least three months prior to the date ending his/her current waiver span. New assessments must confirm continued Medicaid eligibility, and are to be used as guidelines for writing a new ISP appropriate for the individual's needs as described in the assessment report.

Residence County

County where a person lives -- used in preparing certain forms.

Resident Number

Assigned by DODD Information Systems for identification. The majority of the numbers have seven digits and a few are six digits. Twice yearly, each County Board reports on the IIF (IDS) what services, if any, each eligible person residing in that county has received. On the IIF(IDS)form this number is called, 'client number'. Waiver services are not directly related to this number.

Residential Advisory Group

A statutorily mandated component of supported living administration, which requires a County Board of Developmental Disabilities to convene a group of individuals to provide input and discuss issues relative to the operation of supported living in the county. At a minimum, this group must be comprised of an individual receiving supports, a County Board representative, and a residential service provider.

Respite Care

A service designed to provide temporary residence for a person with a disability who ordinarily lives with family or friends, or to assume temporary responsibility for care of the person in his or her own home. This service provides back-up support, and in some cases relief, to people responsible for care of an ill or disabled person who ordinarily lives in their household.


Request for Proposal. One of the two methods by which providers may be included in the provider pool. This method affords the County Board of Developmental Disabilities the opportunity to deny pool access to certain providers that do not meet their defined expectations.


Rehabilitation Services Commission. Also may be referred to as ORSC -- Ohio Rehabilitation Services Commission.


Also referred to as CHIP, SCHIP stands for Children's Health Insurance Program. Also may be referred to as Healthy Start.


Severely Emotionally Disturbed.


People with developmental disabilities, either individually or in groups, speaking or acting on behalf of themselves, or on behalf of issues that affect people with disabilities.


An initiative built on the principles of freedom, authority, support, responsibility, and confirmation. Self-Determination gives people with disabilities the freedom to decide how they will live, work and participate in the community; the authority to decide how the money allocated to them will be spent; the supports that will allow that person to lead the life they choose; the responsibility of assuring that the money they are using is spent in a useful and appropriate manner; and confirmation that the person and his or her family are critical to making life decisions and designing the system to help them.

Service Coordination

The management of a person's set of services, typically by a government entity. See SSA, below.

Service Coordinator

A Service Coordinator is another term for a Service and Support Administrator (SSA - see below)


State Fiscal Year: Begins July 1, ends June 30 of any year.

Shell Record

A record created in a database that contains a minimum number of required fields, but is not fully complete. Can be used for formatting and storing information in a consistent way.

Single-State Agency

The term CMS uses to describe the Ohio Dept. of Job and Family Services (ODJFS). CMS specifies one agency per state as the agency through which all Medicaid activities are coordinated. CMS does allow the Single-State Agency to delegate certain responsibilities (if the Single-State Agency chooses to do so) to other agencies such as the Ohio Dept. of Developmental Disabilities, through inter-agency agreements.

Sister Agencies

Ohio agencies involved in Medicaid: They include ODJFS, DODD, ODADAS, ODMH, ODH, and (partly) ODE. (All of these acronyms are listed in this glossary.)


Supported Living. Defined as assistance directed toward individuals with disabilities, which enables them to live as independently as possible in their own communities, with supports as they choose.


Severely Mentally Disabled. A designation for those adults with severe and persistent mental illnesses who are at the greatest risk for needing services. The SMD designation has been made using four components: the receipt of SSI/SSDI for a mental impairment, diagnosis, duration of impairment and level of functioning.


Skilled Nursing.


Skilled Nursing Facility.


State Plan Amendment.


A Service and Support Administrator (SSA) -- also called a service coordinator or case manager-- works with individuals and providers of services to coordinate services. For families who have a member with a disability, the SSA should provide the family with the resources and support the family needs to ensure that their family member with a disability receives services that are essential to their well-being, as well as monitor progress.


Social Security Disability Insurance. The plan pays monthly benefits to disabled workers and their dependents. The plan is funded by Social Security. Participants must have accrued sufficient quarter-years of employment and payment into the system to qualify for benefits.


Social Security Income. The federal government provides income support to people 65 and over, adults and children with blindness or other disabilities, who have few or no financial resources.


Social Security Number.

State Hearing

An opportunity to dispute an action related to Medicaid, before a hearing officer from ODJFS.

State Plan

A term used to describe the services available in Ohio through the Medicaid card.

Supported Employment

Paid employment in community settings for persons with severe disabilities who need on-going support to perform their work. Support can include on-the-job training, transportation or supervision.

Supported Living

Supported Living is a service model based on principles that emphasize a person's choice, self-determination and community integration.


Temporary Aid to Needy Families.

Tax Equity

State funding available to economically disadvantaged areas.


Traumatic Brain Injury.


To Be Refiled: A term that describes rules pulled from the JCARR process prior to the actual approval.


Targeted Case Management is the coordination of specialized services for an individual that helps them get the needed services, evaluates if the services are appropriate and monitors them. TCM is a Medicaid-reimbursed service,

The League

Ohio League for the Mentally Retarded: This organization is now referred to simply as 'The League'. It is an advocacy organization for people with developmental disabilities.

Transition Planning

Transition Planning is a coordinated set of activities focused on improving the academic and functional achievement of a student with disabilities to promote the student's movement from school to post-school activities. Post-school activities can include college, vocational training, employment, continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living, or community participation. Good transition planning is outcome-oriented, and focuses on results that help the student reach post-school goals. For students with disabilities, transition planning occurs during an Individualized Education Program (IEP) meeting.

Unduplicated Count

The total number of people who are enrolled or have been enrolled on a waiver in a given Waiver Year.


Uniform Resource Locator ... used to describe an electronic address in cyberspace, containing specific identifying elements.


Virtual Private Network: Used with computers as a way to establish a connection with other data systems.

Waiting List

Each County Board of Developmental Disabilities establishes a waiting list when there are not enough resources to meet the needs of everyone requesting services. If a person asks for a service that has a waiting list, a county will document the request, along with the date and time it was requested, and place the person's name on the list if the service is desired within the next twelve months.


Waiver is usually used in reference to the Home and Community-Based Waiver program where a state has applied for and received permission to use Medicaid funds to assist and keep people with disabilities in the community. Many of the restrictive requirements of using Medicaid monies are usually waived in these programs.

Waiver Span

A consecutive 365 days, during which an individual's waiver is expected to be authorized. Ordinarily, the first day of an individual's span would be the same date of the year in which that individual first received waiver funding. In a Leap Year, a waiver span is 366 days.


Web-Based Cost Calculator. A tool developed to assist in more consistent cost-calculations for services and other system-related costs.


A presentation that uses computers and the internet as the way people can see and interact with a presentation or training. It is designed to link people together from various locations, much like a teleconference, only with the added benefit of viewing the same information on a computer monitor from the participants' various locations.


A type of computer code format often used to transfer data from one system to another.